Mechanistic insights into ischemic mitral regurgitation: echocardiographic and surgical implications

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2011 Jul;24(7):707-19. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2011.04.001. Epub 2011 May 17.


Ischemic mitral regurgitation is a common complication of the healing phase of myocardial infarction. A number of mechanisms have been invoked in its pathogenesis, including alterations of papillary muscle position, annular dynamics, and intraventricular synchrony. The echocardiographic hallmark of ischemic mitral regurgitation is systolic tethering of the mitral valve leaflets away from the annular plane. A number of leaflet tethering parameters have been described (tenting height and area, leaflet angles) that provide insight into the mechanism of tethering as well as prognostic information about the durability of mitral valve repair. Restrictive annuloplasty and coronary artery revascularization promote reverse remodeling and remain the most common surgical treatment. Innovative subannular therapies and a number of percutaneous interventions are under investigation.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty*
  • Echocardiography / methods*
  • Humans
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / diagnostic imaging
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / etiology
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / surgery
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods*
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / complications
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / diagnostic imaging
  • Myocardial Ischemia* / surgery
  • Myocardial Revascularization*