Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is involved in the metabolism of several drugs and is induced by smoking. We aimed to determine the interindividual change in CYP1A2 activity after smoking cessation and to relate it to CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms. CYP1A2 activity was determined from the paraxanthine:caffeine ratio in 194 smokers and in 118 of them who had abstained from smoking during a 4-week period. The participants were genotyped for CYP1A2*1F, *1D, and *1C polymorphisms. Smokers had 1.55-fold higher CYP1A2 activity than nonsmokers (P < 0.0001). The individual change in CYP1A2 activity after smoking cessation ranged from 1.0-fold (no change) to a 7.3-fold decrease in activity. In five participants with low initial CYP1A2 activity, an increase was observed after smoking cessation. Before smoking cessation, the following factors were found to influence CYP1A2 activity: CYP1A2*1F (P = 0.005), CYP1A2*1D (P = 0.014), the number of cigarettes/day (P = 0.012), the use of contraceptives (P < 0.001), and -163A/-2467T/-3860G haplotype (P = 0.002). After quitting smoking, only CYP1A2*1F (P = 0.017) and the use of contraceptives (P = 0.05) had an influence. No influence of CYP1A2 polymorphisms on the inducibility of CYP1A2 was observed.