Adult neurogenesis is a widespread trait of vertebrates; however, the degree of this ability and the underlying activity of the adult neural stem cells differ vastly among species. In contrast to mammals that have limited neurogenesis in their adult brains,zebrafish can constitutively produce new neurons along the whole rostrocaudal brain axis throughout its life.This feature of adult zebrafish brain relies on the presence of stem/progenitor cells that continuously proliferate,and the permissive environment of zebrafish brain for neurogenesis. Zebrafish has also an extensive regenerative capacity, which manifests itself in responding to central nervous system injuries by producing new neurons to replenish the lost ones. This ability makes zebrafish a useful model organism for understanding the stem cell activity in the brain, and the molecular programs required for central nervous system regeneration.In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the stem cell niches, the characteristics of the stem/progenitor cells, how they are regulated and their involvement in the regeneration response of the adult zebrafish brain. We will also emphasize the open questions that may help guide the future research.