Background: The development of hyperalgesia and allodynia after chronic constrictive injury (CCI) is associated with significantly increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. Theoretically, if the production of TNF-α and/or IL-1β could be reduced, neuropathic pain syndrome may be alleviated. Recently, a beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of pain disorders has been suggested. Our present study was designed to examine the hypotheses that (1) CCI-induced neuropathic pain may be associated with increased production of TNF-α and IL-1β, (2) HBOT may alleviate CCI-induced neuropathic pain, and (3) the alleviated neuropathic pain may be associated with reduced production of TNF-α and/or IL-1β.
Methods: Male rats (weighing 250-300 g) were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. The common sciatic nerve was exposed through the biceps femoris. Proximal to the sciatic's trifurcation, 4 ligatures were loosely tied around the nerve. In the sham group, an identical dissection was performed without ligation of the sciatic nerve. Mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia were tested by von Frey filament stimulation and the spread of acetone, respectively. HBO rats (n =18) were exposed to pure oxygen for 1 hour at 2.4 atm once a day. Non-HBO (n =18) and sham rats (n =6) were placed in the HBOT chamber breathing air. TNF-α and IL-1β in the sciatic nerve were assayed with ELISA. The presence of TNF-α protein in homogenates was verified by Western blot analysis.
Results: CCI induced significant cold and mechanical allodynia as measured after CCI on days 4 and 7. The cold allodynia response frequency was significantly lower in HBO rats than in non-HBO rats. The values were 20% ± 1.6% vs 50% ± 4.5% on day 4 and 40% ± 4.6% vs 70% ± 4.5% on day 7 (F =87.42, confidence interval [for the difference between HBO and non-HBO]=29.612 ± 8.781, P < 0.05 for day 4 and day 7). The threshold of mechanical allodynia significantly increased in HBO rats compared with non-HBO rats. The values were 6.20 ± 0.9 vs 4.1 ± 1.0 g on day 4 and 3.8.2 ± 0.5 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 g on day 7 (F =18.8, confidence interval [for the difference between HBO and non-HBO]=1.806 ± 1.171, P < 0.05 for day 4 and day 7). TNF-α content was significantly higher in non-HBO rats than in sham rats on day 4 (17.89 ± 0.83 vs 10.66 ± 1.1 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05) and day 7 (18.97 ± 1.57 vs 9.09 ± 1.5 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05). HBOT significantly reduced TNF-α content to near the level in sham rats, which was 10.94 ± 2.78 and 11.32 ± 2.98 pg/mg protein on day 4 (P < 0.05 versus non-HBO) and 7 (P < 0.05 versus non-HBO), respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of proteins with molecular weights of 51 kDa in the rat sciatic nerve homogenates. IL-1β content was also significantly higher in non-HBO rats than in sham rats on day 4 (636 ± 74 vs 256 ± 31 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05) and on day 7 (687 ± 89 vs 288 ± 35 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05). HBOT had no effect on IL-1β content, which was 671 ± 85 pg/mg protein on day 4 and 672 ± 75 pg/mg protein on day 7 in HBO rats (P =not significant versus non-HBO rats).
Conclusion: These data show that HBOT alleviates CCI-induced neuropathic pain and inhibits endoneuronal TNF-α production, but not IL-1β in CCI-induced neuropathic pain. Reduced TNF-α production may, at least in part, contribute to the beneficial effect of HBOT.