Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for use in regenerative medicine. Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) could affect the differentiation and proliferation of MSCs. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of LLLI at different energy densities on BMSCs differentiation into neuron and osteoblast. Human BMSCs were cultured and induced to differentiate to either neuron or osteoblast in the absence or presence of LLLI. Gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) laser irradiation (810 nm) was applied at days 1, 3, and 5 of differentiation process at energy densities of 3 or 6 J/cm(2) for BMSCs being induced to neurons, and 2 or 4 J/cm(2) for BMSCs being induced to osteoblasts. BMSCs proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay on the seventh day of differentiation. BMSCs differentiation to neurons was assessed by immunocytochemical analysis of neuron-specific enolase on the seventh day of differentiation. BMSCs differentiation to osteoblast was tested on the second, fifth, seventh, and tenth day of differentiation via analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. LLLI promoted BMSCs proliferation significantly at all energy densities except for 6 J/cm(2) in comparison to control groups on the seventh day of differentiation. LLLI at energy densities of 3 and 6 J/cm(2) dramatically facilitated the differentiation of BMSCs into neurons (p < 0.001). Also, ALP activity was significantly enhanced in irradiated BMSCs differentiated to osteoblast on the second, fifth, seventh, and tenth day of differentiation (p < 0.001 except for the second day). Using LLLI at 810 nm wavelength enhances BMSCs differentiation into neuron and osteoblast in the range of 2-6 J/cm(2), and at the same time increases BMSCs proliferation (except for 6 J/cm(2)). The effect of LLLI on differentiation and proliferation of BMSCs is dose-dependent. Considering these findings, LLLI could improve current in vitro methods of differentiating BMSCs prior to transplantation.