The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: a mycological perspective

Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011 Aug;37(3):250-61. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2011.576332. Epub 2011 May 20.


Vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis, and it is diagnosed in up to 40% of women with vaginal complaints in the primary care setting. Reliable diagnosis of VVC requires a correlation of clinical features with mycological evidence. The mycological methods used for diagnosis include microscopic examination, fungal culture, and antigen tests. Fungal culture can reveal the species of organism(s) responsible for the infection and provide epidemiological data. This report reviews current knowledge about the available diagnostic methods and tests that accurately diagnose VVC, and highlights the importance of fungal culture.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Candida / classification*
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candida / pathogenicity
  • Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal / diagnosis*
  • Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal / epidemiology*
  • Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal / microbiology
  • Clinical Laboratory Techniques / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mycology / methods*