AKAPs: the architectural underpinnings of local cAMP signaling

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 Feb;52(2):351-8. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.05.002. Epub 2011 May 11.


The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is targeted to specific compartments in the cardiac myocyte by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a diverse set of scaffold proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling and cardiac remodeling. AKAPs bind not only PKA, but also a large variety of structural and signaling molecules. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts underlying compartmentation of cAMP and PKA signaling, as well as a few of the individual AKAPs that have been shown to be functionally relevant in the heart. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes".

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • A Kinase Anchor Proteins / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism*
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Sarcomeres / metabolism
  • Second Messenger Systems / physiology
  • Signal Transduction*


  • A Kinase Anchor Proteins
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases