The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on the effects of cancer treatment-related cognitive difficulties, with a focus on the effects of chemotherapy. Numerous patients have cognitive difficulties during and after cancer treatments and, for some, these effects last years after treatment. We do not yet fully understand which factors increase susceptibility to cognitive difficulties during treatment and which cause persistent problems. We review possible contributors, including genetic and biological factors. Mostly we focus is on cognitive effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer; however, cognitive effects of chemotherapy on the elderly and brain tumor patients are also discussed.
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