Peripheral nerve entrapments are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of nerve disorders encompassing a wide variety of etiologies and clinical presentations. These conditions can present significant diagnostic challenges, owing to both the variety of symptoms these patients display, along with the anatomic variation that exists between individuals. Precise knowledge of the anatomic course, the common motor and sensory distributions of each of the peripheral nerves, and judicious use of imaging or electrodiagnostic testing can greatly assist in arriving at a correct diagnosis. In this article, we discuss in detail the anatomy, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options for peripheral nerve entrapments of the lower extremity involving the sural, saphenous and common, superficial, and deep peroneal nerves.
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