The neuro-ophthalmological examination

Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;102:71-94. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52903-9.00009-1.


The neuro-ophthalmological examination constitutes one of the most refined and exact components of the clinical examination, often allowing precise diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan even within the compass of the first visit. This chapter briefly highlights important features in the neuro-ophthalmological history and then presents detailed information on the important components of a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmological examination. Covered examination topics include visual acuity, visual field testing, color vision, external eye exam, pupils, ophthalmoscopy, and eye movements. The final section discusses ancillary tests that supplement the bedside neuro-ophthalmological examination, including formal visual field analysis, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, ocular coherence tomography, visual-evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and quantitative eye movement recordings.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Color Vision / physiology
  • Depth Perception / physiology
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological*
  • Electroretinography / classification
  • Electroretinography / methods
  • Eye Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Eye Diseases / physiopathology
  • Eye Movements
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Neurology / methods*
  • Optic Disk / pathology
  • Pupil / physiology
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Visual Fields / physiology