Differences on psychosocial outcomes between male and female caregivers of children with life-limiting illnesses

J Pediatr Nurs. 2011 Jun;26(3):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2010.01.007. Epub 2010 Feb 25.


This secondary analysis of data examined the psychosocial outcomes of meaning in caregiving, self-esteem, optimism, burden, depression, spirituality, and posttraumatic growth in 273 parents caring for children with life-limiting illnesses to (a) determine if there were gender differences and (b) identify gender-specific correlations among these outcomes. Findings suggest that significant gender differences exist. Women reported higher average scores compared with men for meaning in caregiving, depression, burden, and posttraumatic growth and lower average scores for optimism. Correlations also revealed some significant differences. Health care professionals need to be aware of gender differences and tailor their interventions appropriately.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Caregivers / psychology*
  • Child
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cost of Illness
  • Fathers / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mothers / psychology*
  • Palliative Care / psychology*
  • Parent-Child Relations*
  • Sex Factors
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology
  • Young Adult