Background: The development of acute renal failure and myocardial infarction (MI) following colectomy prolongs recovery and is associated with worse outcomes. The purpose of this study is to identify perioperative factors that predispose patients to an adverse cardiac or renal complication.
Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of colectomies from 2001 to 2009. Patients were evaluated based upon the electronic inpatient record and followed to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (creatinine elevation over 50% of baseline) and myocardial injury.
Results: A total of 339 inpatient records were reviewed, of which 134 were female (40%) and 205 male (60%). The mean age was 61.96 ± 16.2 years with 39.5% right hemicolectomies, 22.7% sigmoidectomy, 13.9% Left hemicolectomy, 11.5% total abdominal colectomy, and 6.2% for ileocectomy and transverse colectomy. Within the cohort, 13.9% had baseline renal insufficiency (Cr > 1.4), 7.1% sustained anastomotic leak, 23.9% required postoperative intubation, 15% sustained postoperative sepsis, 11.2% postoperative MI, and 5% clinically significant acidosis. Excluding patients with an anastomotic leak, postoperative intubation, and sepsis, we found that the need for blood product transfusion was associated with postoperative acute renal failure (OR= 7.15 [2.4-20.7]). Preoperative creatinine > 1.5, limited functional capacity, and preoperative systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg were all associated with increased MI rates (OR= 15.7 [3.6-66.8], 9.5 [2.1-42.2], 12.0 [5.523-26.072], and 40.6 [1.7-968], respectively).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that several potentially modifiable preoperative and intraoperative factors exist that predispose patients to postoperative cardiac and renal dysfunction in the absence of major surgical complications.
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