Measuring multiple minority stress: the LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2011 Apr;17(2):163-174. doi: 10.1037/a0023244.


Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who are also racial/ethnic minorities (LGBT-POC) are a multiply marginalized population subject to microaggressions associated with both racism and heterosexism. To date, research on this population has been hampered by the lack of a measurement tool to assess the unique experiences associated with the intersection of these oppressions. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC. The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale is an 18-item self-report scale assessing the unique types of microaggressions experienced by ethnic minority LGBT adults. The measure includes three subscales: (a) Racism in LGBT communities, (b) Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships, that are theoretically consistent with prior literature on racial/ethnic minority LGBTs and have strong psychometric properties including internal consistency and construct validity in terms of correlations with measures of psychological distress and LGBT-identity variables. Men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scored higher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aggression / psychology*
  • Bisexuality / psychology*
  • Ethnicity / psychology*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Homosexuality / ethnology*
  • Homosexuality / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prejudice
  • Self Report
  • Sex Factors
  • Social Desirability
  • Stereotyping
  • Stress, Psychological / ethnology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Washington
  • Young Adult