Endogenous endophthalmitis caused by filamentous fungi has been infrequently described and its prognosis in immunocompromised patients is largely unknown. Patients were identified through a single-centre database containing patients with endophthalmitis. Cases published since 2002 were reviewed. Clinical and treatment features as well as outcomes were analysed. Six patients were identified from the database. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (HM) and/or allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Three patients underwent vitrectomy. None of the patients survived and the median time from first evidence of endophthalmitis until death was 33 days. The median time from first evidence of an invasive fungal infection to endophthalmitis was only 5 days. Fifty-six patients were identified from the literature. The majority of these patients underwent vitrectomy (27) or enucleation (10) and received intraocular antifungal therapy (28). Only 13 (23%) of 56 patients experienced an improved vision. The survival rate was 52% in all 56 patients but was significantly less in patients with HM or post-HSCT when compared with all others (26% vs. 70%, respectively; P = 0.003). Endogenous endophthalmitis caused by filamentous fungi is frequently associated with a permanent decrease or loss of vision. This type of fungal infection carries a particular poor prognosis in patients with profound immunosuppression, requiring improved treatment strategies.
© 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.