The role of gender in a smoking cessation intervention: a cluster randomized clinical trial

BMC Public Health. 2011 May 23;11:369. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-369.


Background: The prevalence of smoking in Spain is high in both men and women. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of gender in the effectiveness of a specific smoking cessation intervention conducted in Spain.

Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of a cluster randomized clinical trial in which the randomization unit was the Basic Care Unit (family physician and nurse who care for the same group of patients). The intervention consisted of a six-month period of implementing the recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline. A total of 2,937 current smokers at 82 Primary Care Centers in 13 different regions of Spain were included (2003-2005). The success rate was measured by a six-month continued abstinence rate at the one-year follow-up. A logistic mixed-effects regression model, taking Basic Care Units as random-effect parameter, was performed in order to analyze gender as a predictor of smoking cessation.

Results: At the one-year follow-up, the six-month continuous abstinence quit rate was 9.4% in men and 8.5% in women (p = 0.400). The logistic mixed-effects regression model showed that women did not have a higher odds of being an ex-smoker than men after the analysis was adjusted for confounders (OR adjusted = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.2).

Conclusions: Gender does not appear to be a predictor of smoking cessation at the one-year follow-up in individuals presenting at Primary Care Centers. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00125905.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Promotion*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Primary Health Care
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult

Associated data