An audiovisual feedback device for compression depth, rate and complete chest recoil can improve the CPR performance of lay persons during self-training on a manikin

Physiol Meas. 2011 Jun;32(6):687-99. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/32/6/006. Epub 2011 May 23.


This study aims to contribute to the scarce data available about the abilities of untrained lay persons to perform hands-only cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a manikin and the improvement of their skills during training with an autonomous CPR feedback device. The study focuses on the following questions: (i) Is there a need for such a CPR training device? (ii) How adequate are the embedded visual feedback and audio guidance for training of lay persons who learn and correct themselves in real time without instructor guidance? (iii) What is the achieved effect of only 3 min of training? This is a prospective study in which 63 lay persons (volunteers) received a debriefing to basic life support and then performed two consecutive 3 min trials of hands-only CPR on a manikin. The pre-training skills of the lay persons were tested in trial 1. The training process with audio guidance and visual feedback from a cardio compression control device (CC-Device) was recorded in trial 2. After initial debriefing for correct chest compressions (CC) with rate 85-115 min(-1), depth 3.8-5.4 cm and complete recoil, in trial 1 the lay persons were able to perform CC without feedback at mean rate 95.9 ± 18.9 min(-1), mean depth 4.13 ± 1.5 cm, with low proportions of 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' at 33%, 43%, 87%, resulting in the scarce proportion of 14% for compressions, which simultaneously fulfill the three quality criteria ('correct all'). In trial 2, the training process by the CC-Device was established by the significant improvement of the CC skills until the 60th second of training, when 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' attained the plateau of the highest quality at 82%, 90%, 96%, respectively, resulting in 73% 'correct all' compressions within 3 min of training. The training was associated with reduced variance of the mean rate 102.4 ± 4.7 min(-1) and mean depth 4.3 ± 0.4 cm, indicating a steady CC performance achieved among all trained participants. Multivariable linear regression showed that the compression depth, rate and complete chest recoil did not strongly depend on lay person age, gender, height, weight in pre-training and training stage (correlation coefficient below 0.54). The study confirmed the need for developing CPR abilities in untrained lay persons via training by real-time feedback from the instructor or CC-Device. The CC-Device embedded feedback was shown to be comprehensible and easy to be followed and interpreted. The high quality of the CC-Device-assisted training process of lay persons was confirmed. Thus learning or refresher courses in basic life support could be organized for more people trained at the same time with fewer instructors needed only for the initial debriefing and presentation of the CC-Device.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Audiovisual Aids*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / education*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / instrumentation*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / standards
  • Feedback, Physiological*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Manikins*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Thorax / physiology*
  • Volunteers / education*
  • Young Adult