Frequency of glycated hemoglobin monitoring was inversely associated with glycemic control of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

J Endocrinol Invest. 2012 Mar;35(3):269-73. doi: 10.3275/7743. Epub 2011 May 23.


Background: The frequency of monitoring glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and its impact on glycemic control of Chinese Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have not been well understood.

Aim: To explore the current status of the glycemic control, the frequency of HbA(1c) monitoring, and their relationship in T2DM outpatients in urban China.

Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 15 hospitals purposely sampled from 4 cities of China. T2DM outpatients were consecutively recruited, and underwent a face-to-face interview in outpatient consulting rooms using a self-developed structured questionnaire to collect information. All consented patients were invited to have a free HbA(1c) test.

Results: Among 1511 subjects, the average level of HbA(1c) was 8.1±1.6% with the ideal percents of 13.6% and 24.8% (HbA(1c)<6.5% and <7.0%, respectively). Less than 1/3 (339/1157) had received 2 or more HbA(1c) tests per yr, and they had a significantly lower average of HbA(1c) than those having only 1 or no test per yr (F=5.012, p=0.007). After adjustment for possible confounders including age, gender, and city, there was a significantly inverse association with adjusted odds ratios of 2.56 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71, 3.86] and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.50), respectively, between the frequency of monitoring HbA(1c) (null, once vs ≥2 times per yr) and worse glycemic control (HbA(1c)≥7.0%).

Conclusions: Glycemic control of T2DM outpatients was poor in urban China. Frequency of HbA(1c) monitoring is seriously insufficient in majority of patients. Lower frequency of HbA(1c) monitoring is significantly associated with poor glycemic control.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Asian People / statistics & numerical data
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / statistics & numerical data*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / diagnosis*
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy
  • Hyperglycemia / ethnology
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human