In assessment a considerable shift in thinking has occurred from assessment of learning to assessment for learning. This has important implications for the conceptual framework from which to approach the issue of assessment, but also with respect to the research agenda. The main conceptual changes pertain to programmes of assessment. This has led to a broadened perspective on the types of construct assessment tries to capture, the way information from various sources is collected and collated, the role of human judgement and the variety of psychometric methods to determine the quality of the assessment. Research into the quality of assessment programmes, how assessment influences learning and teaching, new psychometric models and the role of human judgement is much needed.