Introduction: Incidence of diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. It has been estimated that 2.2 to 2.5 million of Poles will be affected by this disease by 2030.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to conduct an epidemiological analysis of the incidence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the Polish population.
Patients and methods: A sample of 21,600 individuals (men and women) aged 20-74 years was randomly selected from the general Polish population. A total of 14,769 individuals took part in the study (6977 men and 7792 women). Diabetes was identified in individuals with fasting glucose equal to or exceeding 7 mmol/l and in those with previously diagnosed diabetes. IFG was identified in nontreated individuals with fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l.
Results: Diabetes was diagnosed in 1000 individuals (6.8%), including 518 men (7.4%) and 482 women (6.2%). IFG was detected in 1401 individuals (9.5%), including 864 men (12.4%) and 537 women (6.9%). Incidence of diabetes increases with age: in men from 0.7% in those aged 20-29 years to 16.3% in those aged >60 years; in women from 0.5% in the youngest age group to 17.8% in the oldest group. Incidence of diabetes in Poland varies between the provinces--from 5.3% to 9% among men and from 4.2% to 7.5% among women. There was no significant correlation between the incidence of diabetes and the size of a particular local district (commune; gmina). Similar territorial differences were observed for IFG, i.e., from 5.8% to 20.8% among men and from 2.8% to 11.7% among women. As with diabetes, the incidence of IFG was not associated with the size of a commune.
Conclusions: Incidence of diabetes and IFG in the study population varies depending on age, sex, and region. Incidence of diabetes in Poland is comparable to the average values observed worldwide.