1. Chronic heart failure was induced in rats by ligation of the left coronary artery to produce a left ventricular myocardial infarct. 2. Cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was estimated by radioligand binding in myocardial homogenates and by autoradiography studies of radioligand binding to ACE in heart sections. 3. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated an increase in binding sites in animals with myocardial infarction, compared with sham operated animals. Mean increases were 457% in right atrium, 295% in left atrium, 326% in right ventricle, 187% in left ventricle and 530% in the region of the left ventricular infarct, compared with the sham left ventricle. 4. Autoradiography studies confirmed tissue homogenate binding studies, demonstrating (i) a marked increase in ligand binding in the infarct area and (ii) an increase in binding density in the hypertrophied myocardium of right and left atrium, and right and left ventricle. 5. The induction of cardiac ACE in the myocardium of rats with chronic heart failure may participate in the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy.