Understanding the vascular injury pathway is crucial to developing rational strategies for secondary stroke prevention in children. The multicenter Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS) cohort study will test the hypotheses that (1) infection can lead to childhood arterial ischemic stroke by causing vascular injury and (2) resultant arteriopathy and inflammatory markers predict recurrent stroke. The authors are prospectively enrolling 480 children (aged 1 month through 18 years) with arterial ischemic stroke and collecting extensive infectious histories, blood and serum samples (and cerebrospinal fluid, when clinically obtained), and standardized brain and cerebrovascular imaging studies. Laboratory assays include serologies (acute and convalescent) and molecular assays for herpesviruses and levels of inflammatory markers. Participants are followed prospectively for recurrent ischemic events (minimum of 1 year). The analyses will measure association between markers of infection and cerebral arteriopathy and will assess whether cerebral arteriopathy and inflammatory markers predict recurrent stroke.