Rationale: The pulmonary phenotype of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) in adults includes foamy alveolar type 2 cells, inflammation, and lung remodeling, but there is no information about ontogeny or early disease mediators.
Objectives: To establish the ontogeny of HPS lung disease in an animal model, examine disease mediators, and relate them to patients with HPS1.
Methods: Mice with mutations in both HPS1/pale ear and HPS2/AP3B1/pearl (EPPE mice) were studied longitudinally. Total lung homogenate, lung tissue sections, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were examined for phospholipid, collagen, histology, cell counts, chemokines, surfactant protein D (SP-D), and S-nitrosylated SP-D. Isolated alveolar epithelial cells were examined for expression of inflammatory mediators, and chemotaxis assays were used to assess their importance. Pulmonary function test results and BAL from patients with HPS1 and normal volunteers were examined for clinical correlation.
Measurements and main results: EPPE mice develop increased total lung phospholipid, followed by a macrophage-predominant pulmonary inflammation, and lung remodeling including fibrosis. BAL fluid from EPPE animals exhibited early accumulation of both SP-D and S-nitrosylated SP-D. BAL fluid from patients with HPS1 exhibited similar changes in SP-D that correlated inversely with pulmonary function. Alveolar epithelial cells demonstrated expression of both monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in juvenile EPPE mice. Last, BAL from EPPE mice and patients with HPS1 enhanced migration of RAW267.4 cells, which was attenuated by immunodepletion of SP-D and MCP-1.
Conclusions: Inflammation is initiated from the abnormal alveolar epithelial cells in HPS, and S-nitrosylated SP-D plays a significant role in amplifying pulmonary inflammation.