Rationale: Several predictors of mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have been described; however, there is a need for a practical and accurate method of quantifying the prognosis of individual patients.
Objectives: Develop a practical mortality risk scoring system for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Methods: We used a Cox proportional hazards model and data from two clinical trials (n = 1,099) to identify independent predictors of 1-year mortality among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. From the comprehensive model, an abbreviated clinical model comprised of only those predictors that are readily and reliably ascertained by clinicians was derived. Beta coefficients for each predictor were then used to develop a practical mortality risk scoring system.
Measurements and main results: Independent predictors of mortality included age, respiratory hospitalization, percent predicted FVC, 24-week change in FVC, percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, 24-week change in percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and 24-week change in health-related quality of life. An abbreviated clinical model comprising only four predictors (age, respiratory hospitalization, percent predicted FVC, and 24-wk change in FVC), and the corresponding risk scoring system produced estimates of 1-year mortality risk consistent with observed data (9.9% vs. 9.7%; C statistic = 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.71–0.79).
Conclusions: The prognosis for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be accurately determined using four readily ascertainable predictors. Our simplified scoring system may be a valuable tool for determining prognosis and guiding clinical management. Additional research is needed to validate the applicability and accuracy of the scoring system.