Heterogeneity of altered cytokine levels across the clinical spectrum of diabetes in China

Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul;34(7):1639-41. doi: 10.2337/dc11-0039. Epub 2011 May 26.


Objective: To determine the relationship between selected cytokines and diabetes in Chinese subjects.

Research design and methods: Adult patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (n=53), latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) (n=250), and type 2 diabetes (n=285) from multiple centers were compared with normal subjects (n=196). We centrally tested serum GAD antibodies (GADAs), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipocalin 2 (LCN2), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and adiponectin.

Results: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, all diabetes types had increased IL-6 and LCN2 (P<0.01), and all four cytokines were increased in LADA (P<0.01). In type 1 diabetes, adiponectin but not hs-CRP was increased (P<0.01), whereas in type 2 diabetes, hs-CRP but not adiponectin was increased (P<0.01). Adiponectin was correlated positively with GADA titer and negatively with hs-CRP (P<0.01 for both).

Conclusions: In China, inflammatory markers are increased in all three major types of diabetes, but probably for different reasons, even in autoimmune diabetes.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adult
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • China
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Lipocalins / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / blood


  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Adiponectin
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-6
  • LCN2 protein, human
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Lipocalins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase