Mesenchymal stromal cell 'licensing': a multistep process

Leukemia. 2011 Sep;25(9):1408-14. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.108. Epub 2011 May 27.


Many in vitro and in vivo data are available supporting the role of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) licensing in the induction of a measurable and effective immune regulation. The failure of some MSC-based protocols for immune modulation in animal models and in human clinical trials may be explained by either lack of a proper licensing by inflammatory microenvironment or wrong timing in MSC administration. Thus, optimization of MSC use for immune-regulating purposes is required to maximize their beneficial effects.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / immunology*
  • Stromal Cells / immunology*