Transforming growth factor beta in pancreatic cancer

Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2011 Dec;12(12):2158-64. doi: 10.2174/138920111798808356.


Pancreatic cancer has high incidence and mortality rates, and effective treatment remains a clinical challenge. As deregulation of the cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) contributes to the progression of pancreatic carcinoma, the TGF-β pathway has been targeted using various strategies, including small molecule inhibitors of TGF-βRI, TGF-β-specific neutralizing antibodies and antisense compounds. As increased TGF-β2 levels in serum or tumor tissue of patients with pancreatic cancer correlated with poor prognosis, inhibition of TGF-β2 synthesis via the antisense oligonucleotide trabedersen (AP 12009) is a promising approach.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / immunology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta