Testosterone and prostate cancer: what are the risks for middle-aged men?

Urol Clin North Am. 2011 May;38(2):119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2011.02.002. Epub 2011 Apr 13.


With increased recognition of the benefits of testosterone (T) therapy for middle-aged men, there has been a concomitant reexamination of the historical fear that raising T will result in more prostate cancer (PCa). Studies have failed to show increased risk of PCa in men with higher serum T, and supraphysiologic T fails to increase prostate volume or prostate-specific antigen in healthy men. This apparent paradox is explained by the Saturation Model, which posits a finite capacity of androgen to stimulate PCa growth. Modern studies indicate no increased risk of PCa among men with serum T in the therapeutic range.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Testosterone / blood*
  • Testosterone / deficiency
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use*


  • Testosterone