Background/purpose: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) can be complicated by ischemic stroke. This study investigated the frequency and determinants of ischemic stroke in patients with intracranial DAVF.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive patients with intracranial DAVF. Patients with pure hemorrhagic stroke or without available brain imaging for clarifying stroke type were excluded. DAVF was diagnosed by cerebral catheter angiography. Cognard classification and location of DAVFs were ascertained. The clinical characteristics, outcome, and radiographic findings were recorded. Factors associated with occurrence of ischemic stroke in the patients with DAVFs were determined.
Results: A total of 134 patients were enrolled. Six patients (4.5%) had ischemic stroke (mean age: 53.8 ± 13.4 years) and 128 patients were free from stroke (mean age: 55.4 ± 15.2 years). Men accounted for 83% in the ischemic stroke group and 34% in the non-stroke group. Chemosis, exophthalmos and tinnitus were more frequent in the non-stroke group, whereas seizure and mental decline were more frequent in the ischemic stroke group. DAVF was associated with highest risk of ischemic stroke at locations other than the cavernous sinus or large sinuses. Ischemic stroke also correlated with types of DAVF involving cortical venous drainage, including type IIb (18%), III (15%), and IV (100%). No patient with DAVF type I and IIa had ischemic stroke. The rate of ischemic stroke in patients with concomitant DAVF and cerebral sinus thrombosis was higher than in DAVF patients without cerebral sinus thrombosis. Venous infarct was the major subtype of ischemic stroke in five DAVF patients. Endovascular therapy was the most common choice in both groups, and fewer patients in the ischemic stroke group did not receive any treatment for DAVFs.
Conclusion: Location and type of DAVF were two important factors related to the occurrence of ischemic stroke in DAVF patients.
Copyright © 2011 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.