Objectives: We sought to examine the effects of escalating doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplements on platelet function using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and electrophoretic quasi-elastic light scattering technology (EQELS).
Background: PUFA may inhibit platelet function through fatty acid substitution in the platelet membrane by changing the surface charge density and causing decreased production of thromboxane A2. EQELS can measure platelet surface charge density and determine whether the platelet is in resting or activated state.
Methods: A total of 30 volunteers were divided in 3 groups of 10 as follows: Group A, no antiplatelet agent; Group B, daily aspirin only, and Group C, daily aspirin and clopidogrel. All patients received escalating doses of omega-3PUFA from 1 to 8 g daily over 24 weeks. Platelet function was measured by template bleeding time, LTA, and EQELS at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks.
Results: Mean bleeding time increased in a dose-dependent manner with escalating omega-3 PUFA doses. LTA confirmed expected antiplatelet effects of aspirin and clopidogrel, but did not detect any additional antiplatelet effects of omega-3 PUFA. EQELS showed a significant increase in the negative resting platelet charge compared to baseline and an attenuated response to arachidonic acid mediated platelet activation. No bleeding events were observed.
Conclusions: In this pilot study we were able to successfully measure platelet surface charge variation as a measure of omega-3 PUFA effect on platelets. Our results suggest that omega-3 PUFA increase the total platelet surface charge and, therefore, attenuate platelet activation, even among patients taking aspirin or aspirin plus clopidogrel. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these measured effects and EQELS results.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00515541.
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