Numerous complications can occur in celiac disease, nutritional (growth failure in children, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies), hematologic (anaemia), bone disease (osteoporosis, fracture), gynaecologic (hypo fertility), cardiovascular (coronaropathy, venous thrombosis), neurological (peripheral neuropathy), hepatic (cytolysis, cirrhosis). Celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis), and cancer (upper digestive tract, hepatocellular carcinoma, lymphoma). The main digestive complications are microscopic colitis and refractory sprue, which are resistant to gluten-free diet. It can be associated with a monoclonal proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (type 2 refractory sprue), which may be considered as a cryptic lymphoma and can lead to invasive T lymphoma, which occurs in one celiac patient in 1000. Gluten-free diet protects from the occurrence of most complications and correct the over-mortality related to these complications.
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.