Accumulating evidence suggests that the amino acid glutamate (Glu) may play a role in mediating immune function. The demonstration of Glu receptors (GluR) and Glu transporters (GluT) on a variety of immune cells suggests that Glu has a functional role in immunoregulation well beyond its role as a neurotransmitter. The extracellular Glu concentration plays a key role in the regulation of GSH synthesis in immune cells via 2 key GluTs (i.e., Xc- and X-AG systems). Emerging evidence also suggests a role of Glu as signaling molecule in immune cells via ionotropic GluRs (iGluRs) and metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs). In vitro, extracellular Glu concentration has been shown to exert a dose-dependent regulation on lymphocyte activation/proliferation. Specifically, Given the exceedingly high intestinal Glu concentration, these finding are suggestive of a potential role for Glu in modulating immune function and promoting tolerance in the gut associated lymphoid tissues.