Introduction: It is unknown what type of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has high risk for chemotherapy-related exacerbation of ILD. We investigated the risk of exacerbation of ILD for patients with lung cancer with ILD.
Methods: One hundred nine patients with lung cancer with ILD treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy at Shizuoka Cancer Center between August 2002 and April 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.
Results: On pretreatment computed tomography (CT) of the chest, 69 patients (63%) were identified with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern, and 40 patients (37%) had non-UIP pattern. Patients with UIP pattern developed cytotoxic chemotherapy-related exacerbation of ILD more frequently than those with non-UIP pattern (30 versus 8%, p = 0.005). The incidence of grade 5 pulmonary toxicities was 9% in patients with UIP pattern, compared with 3% in those with non-UIP pattern. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that age (<70 years) and CT pattern (UIP) were significant independent risk factors for cytotoxic chemotherapy-related exacerbation of ILD. In small cell lung cancer, overall survival (OS) from the start of first-line chemotherapy was significantly shorter in UIP pattern than non-UIP pattern (median OS: 9 versus 16 months, p = 0.0475), whereas there was no significant difference in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (median OS: 12 versus 9 months, p = 0.2529).
Conclusions: Our results indicated that the incidence of exacerbation of ILD was significantly higher in patients with lung cancer with UIP pattern on CT findings than in those with non-UIP pattern. Therefore, great care is required when administering cytotoxic chemotherapy agents for patients with lung cancer with UIP pattern.