T150R1, an 8000-dalton copolymer with sodium ionophore activity, has been shown to modulate cellular responses in multiple systems. In this article, we studied its effects on lymphoid and hematopoietic organs in the context of the adrenal-pituitary axis. When injected in mice as an oil in water emulsion, T150R1 caused a rapid, profound, and dose-dependent thymic involution accompanied by splenic hyperplasia. Time course experiments with a 2.5-mg dose revealed that the thymus size was minimal at Day 2, rose to normal by Day 14, then enlarged and gradually returned to normal by Week 6 postinjection. Thymic involution was due to cellular depletion of the cortical area, whereas thymic enlargement was due to cortical hyperplasia. Splenomegaly was seen as early as Day 4, peaked by Day 14, and gradually returned to normal by Week 6. The splenic enlargement was due to hyperplasia of the red pulp, with evidence of proliferating erythropoietic, myelopoietic, and megakaryopoietic precursors. In addition, the bone marrow was stimulated and extramedullary hematopoiesis was present in the liver. The effects of T150R1 on the thymus appeared to be mediated by corticosteroids while the effects on hematopoiesis were not. Corticosterone and ACTH levels were increased in treated animals. Adrenalectomy diminished the T150R1-induced thymic involution but enhanced the splenic hyperplasia. Hypophysectomy did not prevent thymic involution, suggesting that T150R1 has endocrine stimulatory effects. These data suggest that T150R1 represents a new class of ionophores which may act on excitable cells within the endocrine, immune, and hematopoietic systems.