Purpose: This study was conducted to assay cytotoxic effects of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines.
Methods: Human gastric carcinoma (AGS), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (KYSE-30) cancer cell lines were treated by MSM and incubated for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cytotoxicity was examined through MTT, neutral red uptake, and protein measurement assays. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining was used for apoptotic cell detection. A diamidino-2-phenylindole staining method was used to analysis cell cycle by flow cytometry.
Results: IC(50) of MSM on AGS, HepG2, and KYSE-30 cell lines were 28.04, 21.87 and 27.98 mg/ml after 72 h, respectively. The EB/AO staining showed an increase in apoptotic cells. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in cell density at G2/M phase.
Conclusion: MSM had cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines but HepG2 cell line was more susceptible. This study suggests that MSM may induce cytotoxic effect on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.