Over the past 9 years approximately 2 million U.S. military personnel have deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq and Operation Enduring Freedom in and around Afghanistan. It has been estimated that 5-17% of service members returning from these deployments are at significant risk for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many of these returning war veterans will seek medical and mental health care in academic health centers. This paper reviews the unique stressors that are related to the development of combat-related PTSD. It also reviews evidence-based approaches to the assessment and treatment of PTSD, research needed to evaluate treatments for combat-related PTSD, and opportunities and challenges for clinical psychologists working in academic health centers.