In vitro neuroprotective effects of the leaf and fruit extracts of Juglans regia L. (walnut) through enzymes linked to Alzheimer's disease and antioxidant activity

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Dec;62(8):781-6. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.585964. Epub 2011 May 31.

Abstract

Several extracts of the leaves and fruits of Juglans regia L. were assessed for their neuroprotective effects through antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase methods. Anticholinesterase activity was determined against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the enzymes vital for Alzheimer's disease, at 50, 100 and 200 μg ml(-1). Antioxidant activity was tested using radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD), superoxide (SO), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) radicals, as well as ferric ion-chelating capacity, ferric- and phosphomolybdenum-reducing antioxidant power at 500, 1000 and 2000 μg ml(-1). Total phenol and flavonoid quantification of the extracts was calculated. The extracts scavenged DPPH radical in varying degrees; however, they did not scavenge DPMD and H(2)O(2). Only the dichloromethane and water extracts were able to quench SO (10.09 ± 1.38%) and NO (24.09 ± 2.19%) radicals, respectively, at low level. The extracts showed either low or no BChE inhibition and no AChE inhibition.

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / prevention & control
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / therapeutic use
  • Biphenyl Compounds / metabolism
  • Cholinesterases / metabolism*
  • Eels
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Horses
  • Juglans / chemistry*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / analysis
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Phytotherapy
  • Picrates / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology*
  • Polyphenols / therapeutic use
  • Superoxides / metabolism

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols
  • Superoxides
  • Nitric Oxide
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Cholinesterases