The development of human endometrial carcinoma (HEC) is a complex pathologic process involves several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The full-length paired-box gene 2 (pax2), a recently discovered oncogene, promotes cell proliferation and growth and inhibits apoptosis of HEC cells. Here, we examined the effect of pax2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the growth of transplanted HEC cells in nude mice. The expression of Pax2 in 21 cases of normal endometrium and 38 cases of HEC was examined by immohistochemistry (IHC). HEC models were developed by subcutaneously transferring HEC cells into nude mice, followed by treatment with empty lentivirus vector, lentivirus vector-based pax2 siRNA, and phosphate buffered saline, respectively. Four weeks later, tumor size was measured, tumor inhibition rate was calculated, and histological analyses were conducted after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The expression of Pax2 and Bcl-2 was detected by Western blot; proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected by IHC. Significant differences were observed in the positive rate of Pax2 between normal endometrium and HEC (14.2% vs. 60.5%, P < 0.01). The expression index of Pax2 in well differentiated tumors was 1.88 ± 1.68, much lower than that in tumors of moderate (3.07 ± 1.96, P < 0.05) or poor differentiation (5.45 ± 2.76, P <0.01). Tumor necrosis increased, nuclear basophilia stain decreased, tumor growth was inhibited, and PCNA, Pax2, and Bcl-2 expression was reduced in HEC models treated with pax2 siRNA. These results indicate that Pax2 expression is related to HEC tumor biology with the increased expression of Pax2 correlated to malignancy. pax2 siRNA down-regulates Pax2 expression and inhibits tumorigenesis of HEC in nude mice, possibly due to cell apoptosis and the inhibition of tumor proliferation induced by down-regulation of Bcl-2.