Iatrogenic injury to the urinary tract during colorectal surgery can be a source of significant morbidity. Although most cases of ureteral injury occur in patients without significant risk factors, the incidence of urinary tract injuries increases in patients with prior pelvic operations, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, and in patients with extensive neoplasms causing distortion of normal surgical planes. The most commonly injured locations are the ureter, bladder, and urethra. Mechanisms of injury include ligation, transection, devascularization, and energy induced. Early identification of urinary tract injuries is paramount in minimizing morbidity and preservation of renal function. Anatomic considerations for preventing injuries, diagnostic techniques for localizing and staging injuries, as well as reconstructive techniques and principles of repair are discussed.
Keywords: Iatrogenic injury; bladder; repair; ureter; urethra.