Momordica grosvenori (Luo Han Guo), grown primarily in Guangxi province in China, has been traditionally used for thousands of years by the Chinese to make hot drinks for the treatment of sore throat and the removal of phlegm. The natural noncaloric sweetening triterpenoid glycosides (mogrosides) contained in the M. grosvenori fruits are also antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, and helpful in preventing diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of mogrosides in both murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and a murine ear edema model. The results indicate that mogrosides can inhibit inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in RAW 264.7 cells by down-regulating the expression of key inflammatory genes iNOS, COX-2, and IL-6 and up-regulating some inflammation protective genes such as PARP1, BCL2l1, TRP53, and MAPK9. Similarly, in the murine ear edema model, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation was inhibited by mogrosides by down-regulating COX-2 and IL-6 and up-regulating PARP1, BCL2l1, TRP53, MAPK9, and PPARδ gene expression. This study shows that the anticancer and antidiabetic effects of M. grosvenori may result in part from its anti-inflammatory activity.