Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Feb;34(1):174-80. doi: 10.3109/08923973.2011.584066. Epub 2011 Jun 2.


Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

Publication types

  • Letter
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / chemistry
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Antigens / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Female
  • Fructans / chemistry
  • Fructans / pharmacology*
  • Garlic / chemistry*
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Ovalbumin / immunology
  • Ovalbumin / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Vaccines / chemistry
  • Vaccines / immunology
  • Vaccines / pharmacology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antigens
  • Fructans
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Plant Extracts
  • Vaccines
  • Ovalbumin