Background: Infants are considered large for gestational age (LGA) if their birth weight is greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age and they have an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal diabetes is one of the factors affecting birthweight. However there are limited data on the perinatal outcomes of infants of gestational diabetic mothers. The aim of the present study was to compare the neonatal outcomes of LGA infants delivered by women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.
Methods: This was a retrospective study of LGA infants of ≥36 weeks of gestation born at the Gazi University Medical School Hospital during the period of 2006-2009. Neonatal outcomes included hypoglycemia and polycythemia in the early neonatal period and hospital admissions. The Chi-square and Student's t test were used for comparing variables.
Results: Seven hundred eligible infant-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Eighty-seven of them (12.4%) were infants of gestational diabetic mothers and 613 (87.6%) were infants of non-diabetic mothers. The incidence of hypoglycemia at the first hour was higher in infants of diabetic mothers (12.8%) than in infants of non-diabetic mothers (5.3%) (P=0.014). Polycythemia was also more frequently observed in infants of the gestational diabetic mothers (9.3%) than in infants of the non-diabetic mothers (3.0%) (P=0.010). Although overall hospital admission rates were not different between the two groups, infants of diabetic mothers were more likely to be admitted because of resistant hypoglycemia (P=0.045).
Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that LGA infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus were at a greater risk for hypoglycemia and polycythemia in the early neonatal period than LGA infants of nondiabetic mothers.