A preliminary survey of domestic rodent and their fleas was carried out in different environmental Governorates (Ismailia, Dakahlia, El-Fayoum, North Sinai and Matrouh), Egypt. Flea index (number of flea/rodent) and percentage frequency of different flea species were recorded in spring (2009- 2010). The main rodent species found were the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, Rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white- bellied rat, Rattus rattus frugivorus, the house mouse, Mus musculus and the spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus. The common flea species attacking rodents were: the oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, the mouse flea, Leptopsylla segnis, the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis and the sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea. The flea index at Ismailia and Matrouh Governorates showed the highest indices (8.93 & 7.68), while El-Fayoum and North Sinai Governorates showed the lowest ones (1.09 & 1.68). Dakhalia showed moderate flea index (4.52). The highest number of fleas was recorded on R. norvegicus lives in places that are easy to dig barrows, which are suitable medium for fleas breeding. The lowest number was recorded on Mus musculus and Acomys cahirinus. The oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis was the highest frequency distribution for all domestic rodent species, while, the stick-tight flea, Echidnophaga gallinacea was the lowest which recorded at Ismailia and Dakahlia only.