Food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions (symptoms in skin, mucosal, digestive, respiratory systems, and anaphylactic reactions) are caused in living body through immunological mechanisms after intake of causative food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergy falls into four general clinical types; 1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, 2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, 3) immediate symptoms (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and 4) food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate-type food allergy). Therapy for food allergy includes treatments of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity like anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be conducted only if they are inevitable because they places a burden on patients. For this purpose, it is highly important that causative foods are accurately identified. Many means to determine the causative foods are available, including history taking, skin prick test, antigen specific IgE antibodies in blood, basophil histamine release test, elimination diet test, oral food challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral food challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis.