Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of undiagnosed glucose abnormalities and the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among south Asians and white Europeans attending a systematic screening programme for type 2 diabetes (ADDITION-Leicester) and to estimate the achievable risk reduction in individuals identified with glucose disorders.
Methods: Random samples of individuals (n = 66,320) from 20 general practices were invited for a 75 g OGTT and CVD risk assessment. Ten-year CVD risk among screen-detected people with diabetes or impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (impaired fasting glycaemia and/or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]) was computed using the Framingham-based ETHRISK engine and achievable risk reduction was predicted using relative reductions for treatments extracted from published trials.
Results: A total of 6,041 participants (48% male, 22% south Asian) aged 40-75 years inclusive were included. Undiagnosed glucose disorders occurred more frequently in south Asians than white Europeans; age and sex adjusted odds ratios were 1.74 (95% CI 1.42-2.13) and 2.30 (95% CI 1.68-3.16) for IGT and diabetes respectively. Prevalence of any undetected glucose disorder was 17.5% in the whole cohort. Adjusted 10-year risk was similar in screen-detected people with IGR and diabetes (18.3% vs 21.6%), and was higher in south Asians across the glucose spectrum. Absolute CVD risk reductions of up to 13% in those with screen-detected type 2 diabetes and 6% in IGR are achievable using existing cardioprotective therapies.
Conclusions/interpretation: Population screening with an OGTT identifies a significant burden of modifiable CVD risk, especially within south Asian groups. Strategies enticing this population to consider screening programmes are urgently needed as significant risk reduction is possible once a glucose abnormality is identified.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00318032.
Funding: The project is funded for support and treatment costs by NHS Department of Health Support for Science and project grants.