The predominant subgingival microflora, host immune response, and genetic history of a 14-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome (PLS) are reported. The patient had high counts of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and surface translocating bacteria. She had significantly raised levels of antibodies to five of the bacterial species studied with the levels to A. actinomycetemcomitans remaining high after antibiotic therapy. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) also released significantly increased amounts of O2 compared to controls. The data presented support a role for A. actinomycetemcomitans and PMN dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PLS.