Here, we analyze for the first time the immunological and therapeutic efficacy of a dendritic cell (DC) vaccine based on a cancer-testis antigen, Brother of regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS), an epigenetically acting tumor-promoting transcription factor. Vaccination of mice with DC loaded with truncated form of BORIS (DC/mBORIS) after 4T1 mammary tumor implantation induced strong anti-cancer immunity, inhibited tumor growth (18.75% of mice remained tumor-free), and dramatically lowered the number of spontaneous clonogenic metastases (50% of mice remained metastases-free). Higher numbers of immune effector CD4 and CD8 T cells infiltrated the tumors of vaccinated mice vs. control animals. Vaccination significantly decreased the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) infiltrating the tumor sites, but not MDSCs in the spleens of vaccinated animals. These data suggest that DC-based mBORIS vaccination strategies have significant anti-tumor activity in a therapeutic setting and will be more effective when combined with agents to attenuate tumor-associated immune suppression.
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