The majority of Ewing sarcomas and peripheral neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) that have been karyotyped contain a specific translocation, t(11;22)(q23;q11). We report here a second nonrandom translocation, der(16)t(1;16)(q21;q13), in 2 of 20 cases of Ewing sarcoma (seven previously unreported) and 2 of 7 cases of PNET (all previously unreported). All cases with this translocation also contained the t(11;22). Comparison of C-banding patterns in tumor and peripheral lymphocyte karyotypes in one case indicated that the likely breakpoints were 1q21 and 16q13. The presence of this translocation in cell lines will enable further investigation of the molecular events important in the pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma and PNET.