Celiac disease is an enteropathy caused by an abnormal immune response to cereal gluten proteins (gliadin). To unravel the possible role of the interactions between gliadin peptides and specific intestinal bacteria, the response of intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells to gliadin subjected to gastrointestinal digestion in the presence or absence of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 has been studied. Changes in the proteome of Caco-2 cells were determined by 2DE and MALDI-TOF. Gliadins digested without B. longum altered the expression of a higher number of proteins than in the presence of the bacterium (21 versus 9), and these proteins were involved in disorganization of cell cytoskeleton, inflammation, and apoptosis. Gliadins digested in the presence of the bacterium influenced the production of proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and cell survival and function. Therefore, B. longum CECT 7347 might ameliorate gliadin toxicity and modify the responses of intestinal epithelial cells to the gliadin challenge.