Irradiation induced foci (IRIF) as a biomarker for radiosensitivity

Mutat Res. 2012 Aug 1;736(1-2):39-47. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.05.017. Epub 2011 May 30.


It has long been known that the level of radiosensitivity between individuals covers a considerable range. This range is reflected in analysis of patient cell lines with some cell lines showing significantly reduced sensitivity to in vitro radiation exposure. Our increased exposure to radiation from diagnostic medical procedures and other life style changes has raised concerns that there may be individuals who are at an elevated risk from the harmful impact of acute or chronic low dose radiation exposure. Additionally, a subset of patients show an enhanced normal tissue response following radiotherapy, which can cause significant discomfort and, at the extreme, be life threatening. It has long been realised that the ability to identify sensitive individuals and to understand the mechanistic basis underlying the range of sensitivity within the population is important. A reduced ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and/or activate the DSB damage response underlies some, although not necessarily all, of this sensitivity. In this article, we consider the utility of the recently developed γH2AX foci analysis to provide insight into radiation sensitivity within the population. We consider the nature of sensitivity including the impact of radiation on cell survival, tissue responses and carcinogenesis and the range of responses within the population. We overview the current utility of the γH2AX assay for assessing the efficacy of the DNA damage response to low and high dose radiation and its potential future exploitation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / genetics
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Repair
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Histones / analysis
  • Humans
  • Radiation Tolerance / genetics*


  • Biomarkers
  • H2AX protein, human
  • Histones