Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders

Clin Sports Med. 2011 Jul;30(3):551-73. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2011.03.005.


Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Amenorrhea / therapy*
  • Athletes*
  • Bone Density* / physiology
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / trends
  • Drug Therapy / trends
  • Energy Intake* / physiology
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders / therapy*
  • Female
  • Folic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Menstruation / physiology
  • United States


  • Folic Acid